Using in vitro embryo culture for obtaining new breeding forms of peach

I.V. Mitrofanova, A.V. Smykov, O.V. Mitrofanova, N.P. Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, S.N. Chirkov, I.V. Zhdanova
Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch, genus Prunus, family Rosaceae] is one of the valuable commercial stone fruit crops. In the Nikita Botanical Gardens the peach collection includes 564 cultivars and 153 breeding forms. Significant economic damage to the peach plants is caused by viruses that reduce the yield till 100%. Among the identified viral pathogens affecting peach in southern Russia, Plum pox Potyvirus (PPV), Prunus necrotic ringspot Ilarvirus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf Ilarvirus (PDV), Apple mosaic Ilarvirus (ApMV), are more common than others. The most harmful is PPV that causes ‘sharka’ disease. A wide spread of viruses limits growing of commercial peach cultivars and preservation of peach collections. Eight peach cultivars and two hybrid forms selected for crossings were evaluated according to the absence of PPV, PNRSV, PDV and ApMV. Additionally, promising peach cultivars and hybrid forms were selected based on their economically valuable features. The virus diagnostics was done by using molecular methods (ELISA and RT-PCR). Cultivar ‘Nikitskiy Podarok’, previously identified as tolerant, was selected as a paternal form. Four peach crossing combinations were carried out, where the mother forms were: ‘Clyde Wilson’, ‘Jerseyglo’, ‘Persey’, ‘[(Kosmicheskiy × Ak Sheftalyu Kesma 84-107) × Tovarishch] 92-2210’. The in vitro embryoculture method was used to obtain new forms. Optimal conditions for the cultivation of hybrid embryos were determined. Biotechnological regeneration techniques were developed and the morphogenetic capacity in vitro of the studied cultivars and new hybrid forms were studied at the stages of embryo development induction and microshoot proliferation.
Mitrofanova, I.V., Smykov, A.V., Mitrofanova, O.V., Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N.P., Chirkov, S.N. and Zhdanova, I.V. (2020). Using in vitro embryo culture for obtaining new breeding forms of peach. Acta Hortic. 1289, 159-166
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1289.23
Prunus persica (L.) Batch, virus pathogens, virus-free cultivars, embryo development methods

Acta Horticulturae