Some morphological and biological features of apricot cultivars from field collection of the Nikita botanical gardens

S. Shevchenko, I.V. Mitrofanova, V. Gorina
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is one of the leading southern fruit crops. This culture has fruits with high taste qualities, due to the presence of pectin substances, vitamins, sugars, organic acids, mineral salts, etc. When plants are affected by biotic and abiotic stress factors, including viruses, some physiological and biochemical parameters were changed that cause a violation of biochemical balance and affect the anatomical and morphological characteristics and genesis of various organs. The aim of our research was to determine the effect of infection with viral pathogens on the morphological and biological characteristics of apricot generative structures. We studied 11 apricot cultivars characterized by some useful qualities and among them there were specimens with and without visible viral damages. Pollen analysis was carried out on temporary slides stained with aceto-orcein, pollen was germinated in a 15% sucrose solution at 28°C. The main characteristics of fruits and leaves of the apricot cultivars included in hybridization are presented. It was found that in the selection of the initial apricot forms for hybridization, along with the analysis of mature pollen, the structure of the flower should be also taken into account, as in flowers with short pistils embryo sacs are underdeveloped, the egg apparatus is not differentiated, so fertilization is impossible. In flowers with long pistils two ovules are usually formed, one of them gradually degenerates and the other develops normally. The biotechnology ways to obtain apricot plantlets in vitro are determined. An integrated approach to the evaluation of apricot cultivars is proposed.
Shevchenko, S., Mitrofanova, I.V. and Gorina, V. (2020). Some morphological and biological features of apricot cultivars from field collection of the Nikita botanical gardens. Acta Hortic. 1289, 227-236
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1289.32
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1289.32
Prunus armeniaca, pollen, flower, cultivar, in vitro plant regeneration
English
1289_32
227-236

Acta Horticulturae