Genetic resistance to major pests and diseases of fruit tree crops - a possibility to reduce resistance to pesticides
Resistance to insecticides was first documented by Melander in 1914 when San Jose scale demonstrated resistance to an inorganic insecticide. Between1914-1946 new 11 additional cases were recorded. Development of organic insecticides, such as DDT, gave hope that insecticide resistance was a dead issue, but in 1947 housefly resistance to DDT had evolved and later it was no longer effective in preventing malaria in some places. The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.) has developed resistance to 52 different compounds to all major insecticide classes. Increasing resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis was demonstrated in Canadian greenhouses. We need to keep in mind that pest population can also adapt to non-chemical methods of control - Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence became adapted to a corn-soya been rotation by spending the year when field is planted to soyabeens in diapause. Over 500 species of pest have developed a resistance to pesticides, but other sources estimate the number to be around 1000 species from 1945 to 2004. Glyphosates resistance is now presented in the vast majority of soybean, cotton, corn and rice farms in some US states. In the middle of the 1990s apple and pear codling moth resistance was recorded in France. Later in 2005 after fungicide use - strobilurins, anilinopyrimidine and IBS NDASH inhibitors of biosynthes of the sterols (IBS) for apple scab control, resistance were recorded. In northeastern Spain resistance of Cydia pomonella L. to organophosphates is wide spread in the pome fruit growing areas in the 2010s. In southern Europe during 2012-2013 Myzus persicae Sulzer resistance to neonicotinoid was established in peach orchards. For resistance management IPM programs need to be introduced and cultivars resistant to major pest and diseases of pome and stone fruit tree crops. The genetic resources as sources of resistant genes will be discussed.
Dimova, M., Palagacheva, N. and Dzhuvinov, V. (2020). Genetic resistance to major pests and diseases of fruit tree crops - a possibility to reduce resistance to pesticides. Acta Hortic. 1289, 321-328
phytopatogens, insects, fungicide, insecticides, resistance management