New promising apricot hybrids from Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice

T. Nečas, M. Göttingerová, J. Wolf, T. Kiss, E. Rampáčková, I. Ondrášek
The ongoing global climate change and increasing pathogen occurrence significantly affect not only the cultivation of apricots in the Czech Republic but also in the world. Presently, in the Czech Republic, 4 factors limit the increase of apricot production areas. They are: 1) the unpredictable occurrence of late spring frosts damaging flowers and young fruits 2) disease known as European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma (ESFY), 3) premature tree death associated with pathogens causing trunk diseases, and 4) in the Czech Republic extensively spread plum pox virus (PPV). Therefore, the apricot breeding program focuses on: continuing breeding on PPV resistance, breeding and selection of ESFY tolerant cultivars, prolonging dormancy and increasing frost resistance while emphasizing the quality and attractiveness of the fruit. The new prospective genotypes evaluated in this study derived from the combination of parental components: ‘Chuang Zhi Hong’בHarlayne’, ‘Goldrich’בSEO’, ‘Vestar’בBetinka’, ‘Orangered’בPoyer’ and a reciprocal combination ‘Poyer’בOrangered’ and others. When evaluating phenophases, it has been shown that the evaluated cultivars started to bloom on average at the same phenological term as the control cultivar ‘Velkopavlovickᒠ- VP (middle time for flowering, ripening about 15th of July). The evaluation of ripening showed that the earliest ripening genotype was LEM-110 (about -30 days before VP) and the latest was LEM-111 (about +5 days after VP). The results show that the most attractive fruits from the test set had genotypes LEM-101 and LEM-106, with an average fruit weight above 60.0 g at both genotypes. The highest soluble solid contents were recorded at genotypes LEM-100 and LEM- 111, for both on average 17.0%. The smallest fraction of the stone on the fruit weight was recorded at the LEM-100 and LEM-104 genotypes having the fraction of 5.0-5.6%. The separability of the stone varied from very good to moderate. The highest values of flesh thickness were recorded at LEM-111 (12.6 mm) and LEM-103 (11.6 mm) genotypes. With the exception of the LEM-105 genotype, all other genotypes evaluated had bitter kernel. Furthermore, the resistance to PPV, sensitivity to Apiognomonia erythrostoma (Pers.) Höhn (syn. Gnomonia) and the length of dormancy has been studied.
Nečas, T., Göttingerová, M., Wolf, J., Kiss, T., Rampáčková, E. and Ondrášek, I. (2020). New promising apricot hybrids from Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice. Acta Hortic. 1290, 169-178
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2020.1290.30
breeding, pomology, P. armeniaca, fruit quality

Acta Horticulturae