Some features of obtaining new breeding forms of apricot in vitro
Prunus armeniaca L. (genus Prunus L., family Rosaceae) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. In the Nikita Botanical Gardens in the south of Russia, the collection of apricot is represented by 479 apricot cultivars and 227 breeding forms. One of the most harmful viral diseases of stone fruit crops is Sharka caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae). Due to its virulence and ability to spread rapidly in the orchards, it causes significant economic damage to the industrial production of apricot fruits. In countries that grow this crop, breeding programs aimed at increasing the resistance of industrial apricot cultivars against PPV and the search for donors of resistance to Sharka disease are being developed. To identify PPV and select tolerant cultivars the collection and breeding orchards of apricot were monitored for viruses. Such virus diagnostic methods as biological method (indicator-plants), ELISA-test and RT-PCR were used. The studied apricot samples were assessed for PPV infection and ones with low, medium and high content of viral particles in the cell sap were determined. Breeding combinations of apricot cultivars and forms were selected according to their economically valuable features and tolerance to PPV. Apricot cultivars were crossed: Krymskiy Amur × Harcot, Krymskiy Amur × Henderson, Krymskiy Amur × Stark Early Orange, Krymskiy Medunets × Harcot, Krymskiy Medunets × Stark Early Orange, Henderson × Harlayne, Zorkiy × Stark Early Orange. To obtain new breeding plant material in vitro embryo culture method was used. Regeneration methods of in vitro cleaning up apricot cultivars and hybrid forms are being developed.
Mitrofanova, I.V., Mitrofanova, O.V., Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N.P., Chelombit, S.V., Gorina, V.M. and Chirkov, S.N. (2020). Some features of obtaining new breeding forms of apricot in vitro. Acta Hortic. 1290, 237-242
Prunus armeniaca L., Plum pox virus, virus-free cultivars, in vitro embryoculture