Nutritional, nutraceutical and functional properties of flours obtained from broccoli waste material dried at different temperatures
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica) has been marketed as a health-promoting food because it naturally has a high content of bioactive phytochemicals. Florets are the main edible part of broccoli and only represent 30% of the plant, this means that more than 70% of the plant is discarded, generating high quantities of crop remains. However, there is little information published about the use of broccoli crop remains in the food industry. This study presents an alternative to utilize the broccoli residues produced in the field, which represents a problem with respect to its handling and disposal. The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional, nutraceutical and functional properties of broccoli flours obtained by different dehydration temperatures from several crops remains: florets, footstalks, stalks, leaves and petioles. The crop remains were blanched and dried in a forced air oven at 60, 70 and 80°C. The flours obtained were analyzed for proximate and nutraceutical composition (total phenolics, total flavonoids, total glucosinolates, and ABTS and DPPH antioxidant capacity methods) and physicochemical properties. To determine kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to a 4P Gompertz model. The results indicate that the drying temperatures evaluated have no significant effect on nutritional composition. The florets, petioles and leaves flours showed the highest protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, respectively. The results also reflect that the drying temperature and portion of broccoli plant have significant effect on nutraceutical composition. The leaves flour had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content, whereas florets and stalks flours the highest amount of glucosinolates. All flours presented a high antioxidant capacity. The footstalks, stalks and petioles flours showed high water absorption index and water solubility index. All flours presented similar oil absorption index values. Broccoli flours obtained are good source of nutrients and could be utilized as food ingredients.
Dufoo-Hurtado, M.D., Vazquez-Barrios, M.E., Ramirez-Gonzalez, E., Vazquez-Celestino, D., Rivera-Pastrana, D.M. and Mercado-Silva, E. (2020). Nutritional, nutraceutical and functional properties of flours obtained from broccoli waste material dried at different temperatures. Acta Hortic. 1292, 137-144
Brassica oleracea, crop remains flour, drying temperatures, functional properties, nutraceutical composition