Solanaceous vegetable rootstocks in Japan
In Japan, vegetable grafting began with watermelon in the late 1920s, earlier than in other countries. Among solanaceous crops, the grafting of eggplants began in the 1930s, tomatoes in the 1970s, and Capsicum peppers in the 1980s. Since then, many rootstock cultivars have been developed, with the main purpose to improve resistance to soilborne diseases. For eggplants, Solanum aethiopicum was used as the first practical rootstock to control bacterial wilt and Fusarium wilt, and for its low-temperature tolerance. Since the 1980s, three Solanum torvum rootstock cultivars were developed, that are resistant to root knot nematode, Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, and some pathogens that cause bacterial wilt; they are used with a wide range of Japanese eggplant scions. Improved cultivars with high resistance to bacterial wilt have been released. In 1969, 'BF-Okitsu 101', the first tomato rootstock cultivar, was released in Japan; it was resistant to bacterial wilt and Fusarium wilt (race 1). Since the 1980s, many tomato rootstock cultivars have been developed with resistance to various soilborne diseases, including Fusarium wilt (races 1-3), Verticillium wilt, root knot nematode, bacterial wilt, Tomato mosaic virus, Fusarium crown and root rot, and corky root. In 1982, 'Beruhomare', the first Phytophthora blight-resistant Capsicum pepper cultivar in Japan, was released, followed in 1992 by 'Berumasari'; resistant to Phytophthora blight and bacterial wilt. 'Berumasari' became highly popular, but damage caused by these diseases has gradually expanded. Since the 2000s, improved Capsicum pepper cultivars with high resistance to bacterial wilt, Phytophthora blight, root knot nematode, and Pepper mild mottle virus have been developed.
Matsunaga, H., Miyatake, K., Shinmura, Y. and Saito, T. (2021). Solanaceous vegetable rootstocks in Japan. Acta Hortic. 1302, 33-40
Capsicum pepper, disease resistance, eggplant, grafting, tomato