Pomological characteristics of some peach cultivars historically cultivated in Poland and preserved in the collection of Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice
Poland is the leader in the EU in terms of apple production, recently averaging 3.6 million t and from 2013 to 2016 an increase of 500,000 t was observed. In comparison, according to data of the Polish Central Statistical Office the 2016 harvest of peach fruit was 10 thousand tons and only constituted 0.24% of the total tree fruit production. In addition, in last four years minimal progress has been made in peach production. Generally, the climate in Poland is not favorable for peach growing. Winters are mostly long and cold with minimum temperatures sometimes dropping down to -25°C. Beside that freeze events during bloom in the spring very often limit fruitlet formation and this results in low yields of peach trees. However, observed climate change toward warmer weather creates the potential for production development in the future. The peach field collection in the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, Poland, was established in 1995. At present in total over 150 accessions (cultivars, selections, hybrids and seedlings) of peaches and nectarines are preserved and evaluated in the collection. The database of fruits and tree traits developed from measurements and observations made in the collection is a fundamental source of knowledge on peach cultivars of value for Polish fruit growers. In this study peach genotypes (Rakoniewicka, Żoliborska, Grabiszynka, Wacław, Beta 99, Maja, Bobińska) historically grown in Poland with the unclear origins were collected based on their pomological characteristics. At present these local cultivars are mainly grown in home gardens and their commercial value is limited. However, these cultivars may serve as genetic resources in breeding programs, e.g. useful for resistance to frost and diseases.
Sitarek, M. and Machlańska, A. (2021). Pomological characteristics of some peach cultivars historically cultivated in Poland and preserved in the collection of Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. Acta Hortic. 1304, 89-94
cultivar, vigor, fruiting, fruit quality, health status