Modern trends of breeding cultivars for recreational areas of viticulture
In modern conditions of global and regional climate change, there is a problem of recreational zones, which are considered both from the point of view of restoring human health and from the standpoint of restoring soil fertility and resuming agricultural production. One of the most plastic crops for cultivation in these conditions is grape. Considering the eastern Crimea as a recreational zone, several directions should be taken into account - the authenticity of the region's viticulture and the study of the salt tolerance of grape cultivars. A group of salt-tolerant autochthonous grape cultivars of the Crimea has been identified, which can be cultivated at a high level of chloride salinity (NaCl) from 80 to 120 mM in root crops ('Asma'). The data obtained during the vegetative experiments correlated with the data obtained in tissue culture in vitro. However, autochthonous grape cultivars do not have a full range of valuable traits and properties for their effective cultivation, but it can be overcome by the method of generative hybridization. The effect of hybridization of the Crimean autochthonous grape cultivars with varieties of different botanical origin has been established, the influence of maternal and paternal initial forms on cross ability has been revealed. The observed variation coefficients of cross ability indicators as to the formation of hybrid seeds obtained from intraspecific crosses within the species of Vitis vinifera is almost twice lower than in interspecific crosses. The established mean value for cross combinations of the fully formed seeds differs insignificantly among intraspecific and interspecific crosses, with the difference 1.9%. It has determined a higher viability of hybrid seeds obtained as a result of cross-species hybridization. Using autochthonous cultivar 'Krona', as a maternal form, and interspecific cultivar 'Alminski', as paternal form, proved most efficient for obtaining vigorous progeny.
Volynkin, V., Likhovskoi, V., Levchenko, S., Vasylyk, I., Ryff, I., Berezovskaya, S., Boyko, V. and Belash, D. (2021). Modern trends of breeding cultivars for recreational areas of viticulture. Acta Hortic. 1307, 13-20
grapes, recreational zones, autochthonous cultivars, breeding, generative hybridization, cross ability