Expression of Mal d 1 allergen genes in commercial apple cultivars
Apple allergy is one of the most common types of food allergy. The main allergen Mal d 1 is a complex gene family of 31 loci, where each of the loci encodes a different isoallergen. Particular isoforms have varying levels of expression depending on many factors, both genetic and environmental. Here, the isoform expression of Mal d 1.01, Mal d 1.02, Mal d 1.06A, and Mal d 1.06B was studied. Differences in the expression of individual isoforms were evaluated, based on cultivar, pomology, origin, packaging, and quality grades. Furthermore, the differences between the expression of allergen genes in the fruit skin and the fruit flesh were evaluated. Relative gene expression was used as an evaluation method. The results show predominant expression of isoforms Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02. Cultivars with highly expressed allergen genes include 'Golden Delicious' and 'Jonagold', on the other hand, low levels of expression were found in 'Modi'. Our findings also suggest that the fruit skin has higher allergenicity than the fruit flesh and the factors such as storage duration, storage method, fruit handling, packing, quality grades, and pathogenesis associated with defensive reactions of the fruit under unfavorable conditions cause higher expression of allergen genes. Our research presents a unique work because it involved a comprehensive approach assessing many factors related to fruit production, transportation, storage, and sales which could affect allergen gene expression.
Zunová, T., Vejl, P., Melounová, M., Čílová, D. and Vávra, R. (2021). Expression of Mal d 1 allergen genes in commercial apple cultivars. Acta Hortic. 1307, 405-410
allergy, Malus×domestica, isoallergen, qRT-PCR