Basamid effectivity against strawberry soil-borne pests in Europe
Strawberry industry (strawberry fruit and strawberry runners production) has a huge economic and social importance for many areas of Europe. Strawberry soil-borne pests and diseases are numerous and affect crop yield and fruit quality. Nematodes, crown and root diseases and weeds represent the most important constraints for the crop, particularly for strawberry runner industry (nurseries) where yellow nutsedge is often the major problem to be solved. In addition, particularly due to the continue monoculture, strawberry crops for fruit production are damaged by pest and disease complexes, where several fungi and nematodes are involved at the same time without a clear association between the disease expression and a single causal agent. For this reason, both strawberry nurseries and strawberry for fruit soil production, particularly in southern Europe, rely on fumigation practice to keep their sustainability. Considering the difficulties faced from most of the fumigants at the registration process at EU, the focus in this paper is on Basamid Granulat (active ingredient dazomet) uses against several soil targets in strawberry industry, being among a few fumigants registered and available for the farmers in the market. Laboratory tests were carried out in microplots (sandy and sandy loam soils) covered with totally impermeable plastic films (TIF) to test dazomet formulations against Phytophthora cactorum, Verticillium dahliae, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. The results indicated that, under favourable fumigation conditions, the product was able to fully inactivate the inoculum (100%) of M. phaseolina, V. dahliae, R. solani and P. cactorum, while very effectively controlled S. rolfsii (93-97%). Field testing was done in two geographic areas. Northern Europe (Germany) and southern Europe (Italy) were the experimental activities were respectively focused on weed and Pratylenchus spp. nematode, and soil-complex disease control. In Germany in 2019 (Ellerhoop and Lutzhorn) open field trials were carried out to test dazomet against weeds and nematodes: Basamid effectively limited weed emergence and nematode population compared with untreated control. Similarly, in Italy in 2018 (Eboli - protected crops), Basamid applied at 500 kg ha‑1 with TIF covering gave 100% control of most of the weeds, among which Setaria gigante, Senecio vulgaris, Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. In addition, very high efficacy was recorded against Phytophthora spp. and other soilborne diseases too. In addition, still under southern Europe scenario, Basamid pre-plant application achieved a marketable yield of 55.93 MT ha‑1, being significantly higher than the fumigant standard (40.6 MT ha‑1) and the untreated control (12.8 MT ha‑1). The above results obtained with Basamid in different conditions demonstrated that this product represents a very effective and available fumigation tool for the control of soil-borne pests of strawberry fruit and runner production in Europe and other geographies.
Santori, A., Zinser, J.H., Yokota, M., Ronca, A., Minuto, A. and Myrta, A. (2021). Basamid effectivity against strawberry soil-borne pests in Europe. Acta Hortic. 1309, 759-764
dazomet, strawberry runners, strawberry fruits, fumigants, nematodes, soilborne pathogens, weeds