Creation of in vitro germplasm collection of common fig in the Nikita Botanical Gardens

I.V. Mitrofanova, O.V. Mitrofanova, S.V. Chelombit, N.P. Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N.N. Ivanova, T.N. Kuzmina
Ficus carica L. (Ficus L., Moraceae) is one of the most important fruit crops in the Mediterranean countries. In the Nikita Botanical Gardens the open field common fig collection includes 267 cultivars and hybrid forms of local and foreign breeding. The optimal in vitro conditions that induced microshoot regeneration in 14 common fig cultivars were determined. On the culture media MS and WPM with 0.5-2.0 mg L‑1 BAP, 0.1-0.5 mg L‑1 IAA, 0.25-1.0 mg L‑1 GA3 in various concentrations and combinations the formation of 7-15 microshoots explant-1 was induced. In all studied cultivars 0.5-2.0 mg L‑1 BAP stimulated shoot formation. After 3 subcultures the frequency of microshoot regeneration was 87.2-94.6%. Further increase in the number of subcultures resulted in the increased number of newly formed microshoots. Cultivars ‘Pomoriyskiy’, ‘Sabrutsiya Rozovaya’, ‘Limonno-Zheltyiy’, ‘Bourjassotte Noire’ demonstrated a high regeneration capacity. Histological analysis of morphogenic structures demonstrated the formation in vitro of meristematically active zones with the subsequent differentiation of adventitious buds and microshoots. However, the in vitro conservation protocol of F. carica cultivars and hybrid forms by slowing down the processes of their growth was developed. Optimal explants for in vitro conservation – 0.8-1.0 cm long microshoot segments without leaves. Optimal concentrations of retardants and osmotics in ¼ MS culture medium was allowed to increase the viability of F. carica germplasm in vitro. It was shown that the storage of F. carica explants at 8 and 10°C slowed down the processes of morphogenesis, while the viability level reached 90.0-95.0%. Plantlets were acclimatized ex vitro and in vivo.
Mitrofanova, I.V., Mitrofanova, O.V., Chelombit, S.V., Lesnikova-Sedoshenko, N.P., Ivanova, N.N. and Kuzmina, T.N. (2021). Creation of in vitro germplasm collection of common fig in the Nikita Botanical Gardens. Acta Hortic. 1310, 7-14
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1310.2
Ficus carica L., genebank in vitro, microshoot regeneration, morphogenetic capacity, plant growth regulators

Acta Horticulturae