New architectures and rootstocks impacts on vigor, yield efficiency, fruit quality, photosynthesis, and mineral partitioning in modern apple orchards

E. Fallahi, Ik-Jo Chun, B. Fallahi, M.J. Kiester
Two different studies were conducted to address: 1) the impact of two rootstocks in combination with two tree architectures on growth, yield, and quality of ‘Aztec Fuji’ apple over two seasons of 2012 and 2013; 2) the effects of five rootstocks on growth, yield, photosynthesis, and mineral nutrients concentrations of ‘BC-2Fuji’ over 2008 and 2009. In the first study, ‘Aztec Fuji’ trees on RN.29 had a higher yield tree‑1 and larger fruit than those on B.9. Fruit from trees on B.9 had better color and higher soluble solids concentration (SSC). Trees with the tall spindle training had greater yield tree‑1 than those with the 4-Leader in 2012, but the opposite was true in 2013. In the second study, the trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) of ‘BC-2 Fuji’ trees grown on M.7 EMLA was larger when compared to other rootstocks, followed by those on M.26 EMLA, O.3, M.9, and B.9 in both years. ‘BC-2 Fuji’ trees on B.9 had a lower yield tree‑1 than those on O.3 in 2008 and than those on M.26 EMLA in 2009. ‘BC-2 Fuji’ trees on B.9 had smaller TCA, and greater yield efficiency than those on more vigorous rootstocks of M.7 EMLA and M.26 EMLA in both 2008 and 2009. Shoot leaves of trees on O.3 had significantly higher Pn than those on B.9 and M.7 EMLA rootstocks in August of 2008 and in July and August of 2009. Shoot leaves of trees on B.9 had 13% lower Pn than those on other rootstocks in June 2009. The concentration of nitrogen (N) was lower in leaves from trees on B.9, O.3, and M.7 EMLA than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA in 2009. Shoot leaves from trees on B.9 had the highest calcium (Ca) concentrations in 2008-2009 and the highest zinc (Zn) concentrations in 2008. Shoot leaves of trees on B.9 had the lowest potassium (K) concentration among all trees in both years. Trees on M.7 EMLA had relatively higher leaf K and copper (Cu) concentrations than those on other rootstocks.
Fallahi, E., Chun, Ik-Jo, Fallahi, B. and Kiester, M.J. (2021). New architectures and rootstocks impacts on vigor, yield efficiency, fruit quality, photosynthesis, and mineral partitioning in modern apple orchards. Acta Hortic. 1315, 559-570
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1315.82
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1315.82
high density orchards, Malus × domestica Borkh, yield efficiency
English

Acta Horticulturae