Behaviour of Serbian plum cultivars under Romanian ecological conditions
Plum is the most important fruit species in Romania and Serbia due to high productivity and favourable natural conditions for growing. Regarding the Romanian plum assortment, there are local and other cultivars from Europe, such as Stanley, Anna Späth, Tuleu Gras, designated for processing and for fresh consumption widespread in orchards. Therefore, in our plum breeding programme we aimed to improve the assortment by creating new cultivars as well as to introduce new cultivars from other programmes. As a result of the collaboration with the Fruit Research Institute, Čačak, Serbia, the following cultivars: Čačanska Lepotica, Čačanska Rodna, Čačanska Najbolja, Boranka, Mildora, Valjevka, Valerija and Timočanka have been introduced at Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti, Romania. During 2018-2020, the following observations and measurements were carried out: flowering and ripening time, yield (kg tree‑1), vigour (expressed by trunk diameter in mm), fruits quality (weight g, soluble solids content °Brix) and susceptibility to Plum pox virus (PPV). The average flowering time of the studied cultivars was in the first half of April and the average ripening time ranged from beginning of July (Boranka) to the end of August (Mildora and Čačanska Rodna). The lowest vigour was recorded in Boranka (57.60 mm) and Timočanka had the highest vigour (68.61 mm). Regarding production, Čačanska Lepotica, Čačanska Najbolja, Mildora and Valerija were noted as large yielding cultivars (over 15 kg tree‑1 in the 5th year after planting). The average fruit weight ranged from 31.30 g (Mildora) to 63.21 g (Timočanka). Čačanska Rodna, Mildora and Valjevka had a high content of dry matter (over 18 °Brix). Except Čačanska Lepotica and Čačanska Rodna, the other cultivars were tolerant to PPV. Most of the introduced Serbian cultivars showed very good results in Romanian climatic conditions, but most spread is Čačanska Lepotica. The cultivars Boranka, Timočanka and Čačanska Najbolja were used as parents in our breeding work.
Butac, M., Plopa, C., Chivu, M. and Mareși, E. (2021). Behaviour of Serbian plum cultivars under Romanian ecological conditions. Acta Hortic. 1322, 103-108
plum, cultivars, phenology, productivity, vigour, fruits quality