The creation of contemporary gene banks as a fundamental task for solving the import substitution problem
In accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 21, 2016 No. 350 On Measures for the Implementation of the State Scientific and Technical Policy in the Interests of Agricultural Development, as well as Decree No. 996 of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 25, 2017 On Approval of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2025, in Russia conservation and replenishment of biodiversity is a priority task for import substitution. The creation of gene pool banks of fruit and small fruit plants, that must be laid in accordance with international norms and standards, should be based on planting material free from harmful viruses and dangerous pathogens, which are typical plants tested for productivity and genetic stability. Along with the formation of field collections, the use of cryopreservation in vitro of healthy specimens is envisaged. With such system, the task of creating and introducing new cultivars of fruit and small fruit crops into industrial plantations in Russia, which are now often laid by imported planting stock, will be accelerated by orders of magnitude for the established breeding and nursery centers. Possessing original plants of promising cultivars and hybrids or their clones (if biotechnological methods and cryopreservation were used in the breeding process), nurserymen, having patented domestic developments, will be able to reproduce them in the shortest terms in conditions of modern protected soil without loss of genetic stability. In complex studies conducted by breeders, biotechnologists, virologists, phytosanitary experts and nurseries, not only digital technologies will be born, but also mother plantings of the highest quality categories. Only in this way the scientifically-based system of nursery management, elaborated by the scientists of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Selection and Technological Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, will work. The role of the state here is paramount, since it is necessary to provide comfortable conditions for conducting scientific research and efficient business functioning. FSBSI FHRCBAN has all the prerequisites for the implementation of its developments in such conditions, supporting innovative technologies by transferring planting material of higher quality categories for the laying of mother plantations in accordance with the scientifically based system of nursery management in Russia.
Kulikov, I.M., Borisova, A.A. and Tumaeva, T.A. (2021). The creation of contemporary gene banks as a fundamental task for solving the import substitution problem. Acta Hortic. 1324, 83-88
import substitution, gene-pool banks, breeding and nursery centers, mother plants, digital technologies