Experimental variability of grapes in Vitaceae family based on the use of allotetraploidy and in vitro embryo culture

V. Volynkin, V. Zlenko, A. Polulyakh, S. Levchenko, V. Lihovskoi, I. Vasylyk
Formation of grape samples occurred in the course of natural evolution and is possible in the process of experimental evolution under artificial generative hybridization. Crossing species of grapes with a different number of chromosomes suggests the need to combine several methods that take into account the physiological characteristics of the initial parental material. An attempt was made to develop intergeneric hybrids Vitis × Ampelopsis and Vitis × Parthenocissus within the Vitaceae family using tetraploid genotypes of the initial forms. In order to obtain tetraploid seedlings (diploid gametes), buds broken from dormancy and flower clusters were treated with 0.5, 1 and 2% colchicine for 5-14 days before meiosis. The intergeneric incompatibility was circumvented by growing seedlings from in vitro cultured embryos isolated from immature seeds for 40 days after pollination. An intermediate pattern of the leaf typical of the species of the genera Vitis and Ampelopsis used in intergeneric hybridization was observed in a number of hybrid seedlings. This is a proof of the biologically determined possibility that forms from distant crosses may have emerged in nature in the course of natural evolution. Due to the fact that it was more successful to obtain plants from the hybridization of Vitis vinifera cultivars of the genus Vitis with the Ampelopsis genus species, in comparison with the crossing of the Vitis vinifera cultivars with Parthenocissus genus species, a closer genetic relationship in the Vitaceae family can be assumed between the genera Vitis and Ampelopsis.
Volynkin, V., Zlenko, V., Polulyakh, A., Levchenko, S., Lihovskoi, V. and Vasylyk, I. (2021). Experimental variability of grapes in Vitaceae family based on the use of allotetraploidy and in vitro embryo culture. Acta Hortic. 1324, 179-186
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.27
grapes, diploid gametes, meiosis, colchicine, pollination, seedlings, evolution

Acta Horticulturae