The genetic resources database of fruit plants in Mountainous Dagestan as a basis for development of adapted cultivars

Z.M. Asadulaev, D.M. Anatov, M.A. Gaziev
The results of a longtime (20 years) study of natural populations and local cultivars of apricot, apple, pear, plum, peach and grapes in Mountainous Dagestan are presented. Their diversity (361 cultivars and forms) is explained by the intensity of microevolutionary processes and the influence of civilization. The experimental plot ̓s collection of clones and hybrids of studied fruit crops is developed and becomes more complete. A number of limitations have been noted in the forms and cultivars available in the collection: early flowering of the apricot which for many years results in the loss of the greater part of the crop because of recurrent frosts, lethality by rusty spotting and scab of pear and apple cultivars and forms, wilt (Monilia) and shot-hole disease (Clasterosporium carpophilum) for apricot and peach cultivars. The developed selection program for creating its own adapted apple tree cultivars of forms (87 hybrid forms) and apricot (22 hybrid forms) with the involvement of the gene pool of Central Asian apricots with genetically fixed later flowering is presented. The prospect of a new direction in horticulture is substantiated, it is aimed at enriching gardens with cultivars, in the fruits of which containing a large number of biologically active substances and antioxidants. The advantage of local cultivars and natural forms in the significant content of these substances is shown in comparison with the introduced cultivars that are widespread in the region. Methods for optimizing the location and acceleration of fruiting have been developed and introduced in testing of a large number of hybrids' seed progeny, material from natural population, introductions and grafting selection forms.
Asadulaev, Z.M., Anatov, D.M. and Gaziev, M.A. (2021). The genetic resources database of fruit plants in Mountainous Dagestan as a basis for development of adapted cultivars. Acta Hortic. 1324, 237-244
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.37
genetic resources, fruit crops, population forms, local cultivars, collections, Mountainous Dagestan, adapted cultivars

Acta Horticulturae