The role of introduction of different genotypes to peach (Persica vulgaris Mill.) genetic diversity in the collection inside the Nikita Botanical Gardens

A.V. Smykov, O.S. Fedorova, Iu.A. Ivashchenko, V. Fedorov
Since its establishment in 1812, Nikita Botanical Gardens (NBG) has been working actively on the introduction of fruit crops. So far, hundreds of cultivars have been introduced from various world regions: America, Europe, Central Asia, Transcaucasia. By means of introduction and breeding, Nikita Botanical Gardens created a gene pool of peach, consisting of 559 cultivars, which comprises 288 cultivars by NBG (51.5%), 101 cultivars from USA (18.1%), 21 from China (3.8%), 55 (9.8%) from Central Asia and Transcaucasia, 8 from Canada (1.4%), 57 (10.1%) from 14 European countries and 29 (5.2%) cultivars of unknown origin. Ecogeographical groups and ecotypes were classified in accordance with fruit quality (consistency and coloration of flesh, coating coloration, weight, freestone, ripening time, taste). The incidence of each trait in ecogeographical groups and ecotypes was detected. North Chinese and Iranian ecogeographical groups comprised mostly cultivars of European (respectively, 168 and 182) and American (32 and 77) ecotypes. The research of 128 mid-season cultivars (40.8%) showed that most of them belonged to European ecotype of North Chinese (75) ecogeographical group. 38.5% of cultivars in the peach collection of NBG present a good separable stone. 126 of them belonged to Iranian ecogeographical group and 89 - to thr north Chinese one. The largest fruit cultivars belonged to the European ecotype of North Chinese (31) and Iranian (46) ecogeographical groups. Among the cultivars with a harmonious taste, 60% belonged to the Iranian ecogeographical group, and 40% to the North Chinese ecogeographical group. These cultivars belonged mostly to European and American ecotypes. Within the framework of breeding programs, 46 cultivars have been developed and included into commercial range of peaches by the use of 22 initial cultivars. So far, Nikita Botanical Gardens obtained RF patents for 30 cultivars of peach.
Smykov, A.V., Fedorova, O.S., Ivashchenko, Iu.A. and Fedorov, V. (2021). The role of introduction of different genotypes to peach (Persica vulgaris Mill.) genetic diversity in the collection inside the Nikita Botanical Gardens. Acta Hortic. 1324, 245-252
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.38
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.38
stone fruit, introduction, cultivars, gene pool, breeding, patents
English

Acta Horticulturae