Efficiency of introduced sweet cherry cultivars used in breeding
The genofund collection of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) in the Nikita Botanical Gardens includes about 400 samples from 19 countries. According to their ecological and geographical origin, the cherry cultivars belong to different groups: West European (14.8%), American (8.5%), Caucasian (1.8%), Moldavian (1.8%), Crimean (27.4%), central Ukrainian (25.6%), northern Asian (17.5%) and central Asian (0.4%). Cultivars vary greatly in morphological, biological and economically valuable characteristics. A significant range of variations in these features was determined. Genotypes as the sources of economically valuable features were involved in breeding in order to create new valuable cultivars. A hybrid fund of more than 500 samples from 12 hybrid families was studied during 1999-2017. The aim of our investigations was to determine the effectiveness of the introduced cultivars used in sweet cherries breeding and selection. Twenty-nine promising hybrid forms were selected for improving the sweet cherry assortment. Cultivars of early and very early ripening terms were obtained using the method of embryo culture in vitro: Uslada, Vesnyany Naspyvy, Prizerka, etc. The greatest numbers of promising forms were obtained with the participation of introduced cultivars, such as Bigarreau Starking, Bigarreau from Vignola 2 and Drogana Zheltaya. These cultivars were the best to transmit the features of high yield, large size and good taste of fruits. The most effectiveness was shown by the family for which the Bigarreau Starking cultivar was used as the maternal form, and the cultivar Krupnoplodnaya was used as the paternal form. They produced the greatest number of promising forms with large high-quality fruits with various terms of ripening and high yield. Among these forms, we selected the cultivars Karadag and Vytivnytsa that have already been included in the Register of Plants which were suitable for distribution. The promising cultivars Dolgozhdannaya and Triumf have been transferred to the Commission for Selection Achievements Test.
Useynov, D.R. and Lukicheva, L.A (2021). Efficiency of introduced sweet cherry cultivars used in breeding. Acta Hortic. 1324, 259-264
Prunus avium L., genofund collection, introduced cultivars, hybrid