Chemical compositions of Myrtus communis L.

N.N. Bakova, E.Yu. Bakova, A.E. Paliy, D.A. Konovalov
The common myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is a promising medicinal plant for the creation of herbal medicines with anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-mutagenic, proapoptotic, antiatherogenic, antiulcer, insecticidal, and protozoicidal properties. Thus, the dynamics of polyphenolic compounds and myrtle essential oil extraction depending on the ethyl alcohol volume fraction in the extractant (water-ethanol mixture) was studied in the samples grown under the conditions of the southern coast of Crimea. The total phenolics content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method using Uv-Vis spectrophotometry. Investigations of the phenolic complex qualitative composition were carried out by diode-matrix detection (HPLC/DAD). Component composition of the aromatic substances in the aqueous ethanol extracts was found out using the GC/MS method. The maximum of total phenolics was revealed in 70% water-ethanol extract. The analysis of the phenolic compounds qualitative composition demonstrated that in aqueous and 20% water-ethanol extracts, the maximum amount of gallic acid (up to 708 mg dm‑3) was presented. An increase in the ethanol volume fraction in the extractant to 90% led to a decrease in the gallic acid concentration to 25.8 mg dm-3. Ethanol volume fraction in the extractant has a slight effect on the ellagic acid extraction NDASH from 21.9 to 42.3 mg dm‑3. When the ethanol volume fraction was from 20 to 40% quercetin glycosides were extracted. The maximum of myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1,045.48 mg dm‑3) was obtained when the raw material was extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol. The studies of the volatile substances' qualitative composition in the water-ethanol extracts demonstrated that the main components of myrtle essential oil (myrtenyl acetate, linalool and eucalyptol) were identified only in 70 and 90% aqueous ethanol extracts. Thus, 40 and 70% water-ethanol extract of the myrtle raw material had the maximum concentrations of total phenolics. All the main myrtle volatile compounds (myrtenyl acetate, linalool and eucalyptol) were also found in 70% water-ethanol extract. These extracts are promising source of biologically active substances.
Bakova, N.N., Bakova, E.Yu., Paliy, A.E. and Konovalov, D.A. (2021). Chemical compositions of Myrtus communis L.. Acta Hortic. 1324, 361-366
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.56
common myrtle, water-ethanol extracts, total phenolics, phenolic acids, flavonoids, volatile components of essential oil

Acta Horticulturae