Determination of drought resistance of fig and jujube cultivars according to leaf dehydration

I. Chernobay, E. Shishkina
Investigation of fruit-bearing crops efficiency proves that yield quantity and quality directly depend on plant stages and susceptibility to environmental factors. Lately in many regions, including the Crimea, specialists have fixed changes of the temperature regimes. The number of extremely hot days (over 31°C) have considerably grown. In case of a high temperature and moisture deficit, leaves of common fig and jujube started wilting earlier than ever, lost turgor, slowed down growth and decreased fruiting. At the same time, moisture deficit in the organs and tissue causes crop capacity reduction and aggravation of a fruit quality. Fruits do not gain the size and taste parameters, which are typical for a certain cultivar. Purpose of this work is to study characteristics of moisture regime and potential draft-resistance of different cultivars and forms of Ziziphus jujube Mill. And Ficus carica L. under the conditions of the southern coast of the Crimea. The researches were being carried out during 2015-2017 based on the collection plantations of the Nikita Botanical Gardens (NBG). The samples of domestic and foreign breeding were taken as the study objects. While rating draft-resistance, capacity of water-retaining and turgor regenerating in leaf tissue were determined after a wilting process during maximum high air temperature and aridity. There is a direct dependence between leaf capacity to retain moisture and degree of turgor regenerating, that makes it possible to evaluate plant potential in resistance to dehydrating factors. If long-term dehydrating (30 h), the most of the jujube cultivars and forms from NBG breeding presented a high reparation capacity – from 70 to 90%. The following jujube cultivars and forms were distinguished with high draft-resistance: ‘Tsukerkovy’, ‘Koktebel’, ‘Pl. 5-27’. The close relation between a water-retaining capacity and leaf adoptability to stand by the dehydration was determined as the result. Wilting leaves output moisture slowly as possess resistance to dehydration. The cultivars and forms of common fig in ‘Sabrutsiya Rozovaya’, ‘Figue Blanche’ and ‘Figue Jaune’ were distinguished according to this parameter. Turgor retaining in leaves tissues ranged from 70 to 100%. The cultivars and forms with high water-retaining capacity during critical points of vegetation can be recommended for breeding work and creating a new plantation in extra arid regions.
Chernobay, I. and Shishkina, E. (2021). Determination of drought resistance of fig and jujube cultivars according to leaf dehydration. Acta Hortic. 1324, 401-406
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.62
jujube, common fig, cultivar, leaves, dehydration, wilting, turgor

Acta Horticulturae