Drought resistance and photoactivity of leaf apparatus of peach cultivars under conditions of the southern coast of Crimea

O.S. Fedorova, A.V. Smykov, Iu.A. Ivashchenko, Yu.V. Ivashchenko, S.Yu. Tsiupka
The local climate of Yalta is highly suitable for the cultivation of various fruits including peach. Peach fruits are greatly required all over the world. The main limiting factor for peach growing in the Crimea is the moisture deficit during the setting of reproductive buds and the ripening time. Therefore, the research on the mechanism for adapting the peach leaf apparatus to dehydratation is a very important challenge under conditions of the Crimean southern coast. The research was based on the facilities of the Nikita Botanical Gardens. The project comprised 6 cultivars of foreign origin. The cultivar ‘Cardinal’ was used as control. The weather conditions during the experimental period were extremely unfavorable for the plants. This fact made it possible to evaluate objectively the introduced peach cultivars for their adaptivity to drought conditions (at air temperatures of 30.2°С on average and 37.0°С maximally and under precipitation of 0 mm). The water content in leaves, the water loss over the course of wilting and the turgor restoration ability were measured according to conventional techniques. The photosynthetic activity was evaluated according to indicators of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (Kautsky effect) determined by means of the portable fluorimeter “Floratest”. It was ascertained that researched peaches were mainly susceptible to drought under stress conditions of August. The maximum turgor restoration was shown by cultivars ‘Asmik’ (80%) and ‘Zempush’ (68%), the minimum one – by ‘Favorita’ (22%). The use of parameters of photo-induced curve of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm; (Fm-Fst)/Fm; Fm/Fst) allowed to make an objective assessment of introduced peach cultivars relating to their resistance to the summer drought and to determine the varietal differences. The cultivars ‘Asmik’ and ‘Zempush’ kept the most sustainable photosynthetic activity.
Fedorova, O.S., Smykov, A.V., Ivashchenko, Iu.A., Ivashchenko, Yu.V. and Tsiupka, S.Yu. (2021). Drought resistance and photoactivity of leaf apparatus of peach cultivars under conditions of the southern coast of Crimea. Acta Hortic. 1324, 407-412
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1324.63
peach, introduced cultivars, fluorescence, drought, water regime

Acta Horticulturae