Nutrient and phenolic composition of Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit

C.E. Lister, T.K. McGhie, S.M. Tham, S. Sivakumaran, H. Martin, S.B. Cordiner, M. Brown, S. Sivakumaran
In December 2019, Zespri announced its decision to commercialise its red kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'Zes008' and this has been released as Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit. The objective of this study was to obtain comprehensive composition data from the 2020 season for marketing and regulatory requirements for inclusion in the New Zealand Food Composition Database (NZFCD). Nutrient analysis was conducted using standard international methodology for food composition purposes. On the basis of Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) regulations, a serve of two Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit (134 g) contained the following nutrients of dietary significance: vitamin C (243 mg, 632% recommended dietary intake (RDI)), vitamin E (2.1 mg, 21% RDI), vitamin K (9.1 µg, 11% RDI), folate (92 µg, 46% RDI), potassium (453 mg, 23% RDI), dietary fibre (2.4 g, 8% RDI). Compared with Zespri™ Green and SunGold kiwifruit from the 2020 season, Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit was higher in vitamins C, E and potassium. However, it was slightly lower in folate. In the case of dietary fibre, it was higher than Zespri™ SunGold but lower than Zespri™ Green. In addition to the standard suite of nutrients selected, other components were measured (actinidin, anthocyanins and phenolic profile). Unlike Zespri™ Green and SunGold kiwifruit, actinidin was absent in Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit. Total anthocyanins were 6.8 mg 100 g‑1 with cyanidin-3-xylosylgalactoside being the predominant compound. A number of other phenolics were identified and quantified, including (E)-caffeoyl 4-glucoside, epicatechin, neochlorogenic acid, and procyanidin B2. Total phenolics were 220 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) 100 g‑1. Several peaks were clearly detected and quantified but currently cannot be identified. Further, more detailed work is required to fully understand the phenolic composition of Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit and its potential health benefits.
Lister, C.E., McGhie, T.K., Tham, S.M., Sivakumaran, S., Martin, H., Cordiner, S.B., Brown, M. and Sivakumaran, S. (2022). Nutrient and phenolic composition of Zespri™ Red Kiwifruit. Acta Hortic. 1332, 399-406
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1332.53
nutritional quality, vitamin C, anthocyanins, actinidin, health benefits

Acta Horticulturae