Apricot cultivars of Chinese breeding

V. Korzin, Y. Plugatar, V.M. Gorina
The research involved eight apricot cultivars of Chinese breeding from the collection of the Nikita Botanical Gardens (NBG). All genotypes were studied for a number of economically valuable traits. The study was conducted in 2015-2020. The control variant was one of the best cultivars by economically valuable characters – ‘Krymsky Amur’ – zoned in the south of Russia. The site is located in the southern coast of the Crimea at 200 m a.s.l. The aim of the work was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the Chinese-bred apricot cultivars in the conditions of the southern coast of the Crimea and establish the prospects for their use as sources of valuable traits. According to the results of the studies carried out, it was found that most genotypes have large fruits, obtain increased drought resistance, low susceptibility to clasterosporium disease and medium one to moniliosis, early flowering, and fruit ripening. To create cultivars resistant to spring frosts, it is advisable to involve in breeding sources of late plant development, especially those distinguished by late flowering. With late flowering, cultivar ‘Da-Huang-Hou’ was selected. Plants bloom 10 days later than the control cultivar. In order to extend the period of consumption of fresh fruits, cultivars with early and late fruiting periods are of interest as sources for breeding. ‘Lanyhou Jim Mama’, ‘Yin-Bei-Xin’, and ‘Mai-He-Sin’ are distinguished by early ripening of fruits. Their fruits ripen at the end of June. With late fruiting, ‘Da-Huang-Hou’ is of interest (22.07±6 days). Most of the Chinese cultivars are characterized by large fruit size, light skin color with a bright blush, and a fusion-fibrous pulp. Genotypes with a non-separable kernel and bitter seed are common. Among the studied genotypes, ‘Yuan-Xin’ (100.8±16 g) and ‘Lanyhou Jim Mama’ (109.1±21.9 g) cultivars have the largest fruits. On the basis of a pomological description of taste (tasting score 4.2 points), three cultivars are distinguished; there are five large-fruited cultivars (59.6-109.1 g) and six cultivars with a bright integumentary color, occupying 25-75% of the fruit surface. The cultivars are selected for use in further breeding as sources of various valuable traits.
Korzin, V., Plugatar, Y. and Gorina, V.M. (2022). Apricot cultivars of Chinese breeding. Acta Hortic. 1339, 147-156
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1339.20
apricot, Chinese cultivars, flowering time, ripening period, frost resistance, drought, breeding

Acta Horticulturae