Systemic resistance as a potential tool to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 of banana
Banana is a fruit consumed by millions of people worldwide with a production of 150 million t mostly consumed in areas of production. The export production (about 20 million t) is based on Cavendish cultivar but is jeopardized by a wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4). Integrated pest management strategies consist of designing banana production systems based on crop rotation and/or association with cover crops to restore ecosystem services such as organic matter content and turnover, disease suppression and regulation. The stimulation of systemic resistances to strengthen banana tolerance to pathogens in agroecosystems without pesticide is one of the strategies being considered. In a previous study of the interaction of banana with Foc race 1, gene expression was measured after Foc race1 extract was applied to leaves. Changes in the expression of genes involved in signaling pathways and defenses were measured in susceptible and tolerant banana cultivars after application of the extract of Foc race1. In the present study, the direct interaction between banana and Foc race 1 was used to evaluate a potential use of systemic resistances of banana to control Fusarium wilt. Following inducer application of salicylic acid, methyl-salicylate, acibenzolar-S methyl, or methyl-jasmonate, Foc race 1 was inoculated on banana vitroplants. Comparisons of expression of wilt symptoms and of genes related to SAR and ISR signaling pathways and defence were made on banana cultivars susceptible or naturally tolerant to Foc race 1 or/and Foc TR4. Jasmonates, ISR inducers, were more effective than acibenzolar-S methyl, SAR inducer, to reduce severity and incidence of wilt symptoms at 80-and 160-days post inoculation of Foc race 1. Methyl-salicylate and salicylic acid, SAR inducers, were effective inducing short-term regulation of different molecular markers, such as expression of PAL, NPR1 and ICS, all related to salicylic acid control and SAR signaling pathway, and PR3, PR1 and CYS, related to defenses. The results suggest that both SAR and ISR are involved in the banana response against Fusarium wilt and might support disease management strategies.
Mendoza Rodríguez, J., Portal, N., Bolaños Hernández, L., Pérez Bonachea, L., Yanes Paz, E., González Rodríguez, R., Santos, R. and Soler, A. (2023). Systemic resistance as a potential tool to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 of banana. Acta Hortic. 1367, 225-232
Fusarium wilt, disease management, defense mechanism, inoculation, symptom evaluation