L.D. Sparnaaij
The carnation is the major flower crop in Europe. Italy, Spain and Holland are the largest producers; West Germany is the main importer. In Italy and Spain most of the production is consumed locally. The demand in N. and W. Europe is met by the production in Holland in summer and autumn and by imports from (sub)tropical countries in winter and early spring.

Rising production costs, increasing competition from overseas, the energy crisis and the Fusarium problem have caused sharp declines in production, particularly in N. and W. Europe. The exception is Holland where production has increased thanks to efficiency in production and marketing and a wide assortment.

Research efforts to solve the problems mentioned are reviewed briefly.

Sparnaaij, L.D. (1983). CARNATIONS IN EUROPE. Acta Hortic. 141, 261-266
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1983.141.37

Acta Horticulturae