FIELD ESTABLISHMENT OF THREE ECHINACEA SPECIES FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
Three native Echinacea species (coneflowers) were examined to determine germination requirements and favorable field culture techniques. In the greenhouse, E. purpurea exhibited significantly higher germination than E. pallida and angustifolia. No treatment (control), 1 month stratification in peatmoss or sand, and 24 hour H2O soak showed significantly higher germination than 2 month stratification in peatmoss or sand as well as 24 hour KNO3 soak for all species. In a second study, germination was enhanced by light exposure. Two types of bed preparation, planting method, and planting season were studied in the field. E. purpurea growth from transplants exceeded that of direct seeding and growth of E. pallida. Fall-sowing yielded higher emergence than spring-sowing. E. pallida had higher emergence than E. purpurea in the fall-sowings, however, the situation was reversed for spring-sowings.
Smith-Jochum, C.C. and Albrecht, M.L. (1987). FIELD ESTABLISHMENT OF THREE ECHINACEA SPECIES FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION. Acta Hortic. 208, 115-120