A BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF PLANT PROTECTING FOLIAR FERTILIZERS IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
In greenhouse and field experiments it was shown that with the use of pplf, the use of synthetic pesticides can be decreased or even avoided. Simultaneously, substantial yield increases were recorded. One of the better known ppff's has the trade name FloroGama Ochronna - FGO and has been produced since 1985.
For some time the Vegetable Research Institute in Skierniewice has been trying to develop a so-called ecological system of fertilization aimed at protecting the environment and human health (Nowosielski, 1987). In its present stage of development, the system is shown in Table 1.
In the case of greenhouse vegetable production, the proposed system of ecological fertilization involves proper pre-planting substrate fertilization and topdressing with liquid fertilizers during the vegetation period: pre-planting or pre-emergence applications are connected with weed control and foliar application is connected with pest control (Table 2).
A shift in nutrient application, especially N, K, and micro nutrients, from "soil dressing" to "plant dressing" is considered useful to decrease nutrient losses by leaching to ground-and surface waters or by volatilization. This shift is supposed to promote pre-emergence and foliar fertilization with a simultaneous decrease or even elimination of the use of synthetic pesticides.
The aim of introducing these complete fertilizers once for a 1–2 cycle rotation is to improve soil physical conditions, to increase organic matter content, to intensify microbiological activity, to improve water-holding capacity and ion-exchange capacity, and to enrich the soil with less easily leachable nutrients, like P and Cu, or with slow-release N and K. With the use of these complete fertilizers organic matter, lime and elements that cannot be delivered in liquid topdressed fertilizers, are added to the soil.
The purposes of the use of these ecological fertilizers in the proposed system are to: