MANAGEMENT OF DRIP-APPLIED NEMATICIDES IN PINEAPPLE
Pre-plant control of the root-knot (Meloidogyne javanica) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) nematodes on pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) in Hawaii is achieved by soil fumigation with with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and methyl bromide. Fenamiphos and oxamyl are commonly applied post-planting by drip irrigation to maintain control over these two nematodes. Ethoprop, 1,3-D SL (soluble liquid), and metham sodium have been tested in research plots. Nematicide water solubility and volatility and soil organic matter and clay content, which affect chemical sorption and persistence, are important factors in nematicide management. Fenamiphos residues are relatively persistent in soil and susceptible to leaching. Our work suggests optimal application rates for pineapple of 1.7 kg ha-1 fenamiphos applied bi-monthly with no irrigation in the weeks after application to maintain nematicidal levels in the root-zone. The same management practices are appropriate for ethoprop, which has similar chemical properties. 1,3-D SL was drip-applied as a pre-plant fumigant (336 or 168 L ha-1), as well as post-plant (93 L ha-1) in a 2-year field trial. 1,3-D SL is soluble and has a short half-life (2–10 days). To minimize leaching and maximize effectiveness, no irrigation should be applied for 2 weeks after application. The same management practices should be applicable to drip application of metham sodium. Pre-plant application of 1,3-D (336 L ha-1) and metham sodium (249 kg ha-1) were effective in reducing reniform nematode populations to very low levels and increasing yields. Post-plant treatments of fenamiphos and ethoprop further improved plant crop yields.
Schneider, R.C., Green, R.E. and Apt, W.J. (1993). MANAGEMENT OF DRIP-APPLIED NEMATICIDES IN PINEAPPLE. Acta Hortic. 334, 351-360