HAZELNUT CULTIVATION IN UKRAINE
The acclimatization lies in the fact that nuts of South Ukrainian and West-European varieties were sowed in steppe regions of Ukraine. Then seedlings were kept in a nursery during two years. After this we selected seedlings which were the most developed and uninjured by frosts, pests and diseases. The most winter hardy and productive bushes were selected after coming into bearing. Observations have been conducted for 10–15 years.
Nuts were analyzed for percent kernel, fat and protein content. Bushes which met all the requirements were propagated with vegetative methods and became new varieties. The plants obtained were given to state and farm scale trial.
Using hybridization method several varieties of hazelnut were crossed with European, Turkish and other species of filbert. Hybrid nuts were sowed in a nursery or in selection fields. The subsequent technique was analogous to that which was used for the selection of varieties with acclimatization method.
In hybrids which were obtained from crossing of European filbert with hazelnut of South origin the traits of European filbert were dominant. It depends on the local environment and one crossing is insufficient for the change of hereditary traits and characters in hybrids.
So repeated crossings of hybrid forms were conducted in our institute.
Thus, we obtained more than 30 varieties with cropping capacity of 7 and more kilograms from one bush. Below we give characteristics of some varieties.
Lozovskoi urozhainy. Height of bush at the age of 15 is 4 m, diameter 6 m, the number of nuts in a cluster is 2–12, nuts length is 2.1 cm, width 1.6 cm, thickness 1.2 cm. Weight of 100 nuts is 155 g, percent kernel 49%, fat content 65%, protein 16.7%, yield from one bush is 9 kg. Lozovskoi sharovidny (Globe-shaped). Height of bush is 3.5 m, diameter 5 m. Cluster consists of 2–5 nuts. Height of nut is 2 cm, width 1.8 cm,