CONSTRAINTS FOR SHALLOT, GARLIC, AND WELSH ONION IN INDONESIA: A CASE STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF ALLIUM CROPS IN THE EQUATORIAL TROPICS

G.J.H. Grubben
In Indonesia, important allium crops such as shallot, garlic, and Welsh onion are vegetatively propagated. Shallot is mainly a lowland crop, whereas, garlic and Welsh onion are mainly highland crops. Some survey data and on-station and on-farm research reveal considerable differences in yield and profit between individual farmers which are caused by differences in soil structure and water availability and in skills of the farmers. The main constraints are purple blotch (Alternaria), army worms (Spodoptera), and for shallot, anthracnose (Colletotrichum). The decline of garlic and shallot planting material is probably caused by virus and might be cured by visual selection. Garlic in the lowlands forms insufficient leaf area resulting in low yields and small bulbs. Successful adaptation of garlic to lowland conditions depends on the selection of a suitable heat-tolerant lowland variety more than on adjustment of cultural practices.

The absence of seed-propagated allium crops in the equatorial zone between latitudes 8° N and 8° S may be due to the unfavourable conditions for seed production and plant raising and consequently for local breeding. Modern technology might overcome these limiting factors. Commercial seed of adapted varieties in situ could be done in another region with a suitable climate. The prospects for a partial replacement of bulb shallot by true-seed shallot and/or by sowing onion, and of the traditional type of Welsh onion by a seed propagated type, are discussed.

Recommendations are given on on-farm client-oriented research (OFCOR) as a strategy for allium research and development at the national agricultural research systems (NARS), on cooperation with NARS in other tropical areas, and on the technical backing needed from more advanced institutes.

Grubben, G.J.H. (1994). CONSTRAINTS FOR SHALLOT, GARLIC, AND WELSH ONION IN INDONESIA: A CASE STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF ALLIUM CROPS IN THE EQUATORIAL TROPICS. Acta Hortic. 358, 333-340
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.358.55
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1994.358.55

Acta Horticulturae