LILIUM SPECIES NATIVE TO JAPAN, AND BREEDING AND PRODUCTION OF LILIUM IN JAPAN
Lilies are widely distributed in all prefectures of Japan. From the analysis of karyotypes (Noda 1987) and the numerical study (Asano 1986), Lilium species native to Japan are classified into 4 or 5 groups. Eight out of the 15 species grown in Japan are native to Japan, including L. longiflorum and L. speciosum which are also distributed in Taiwan and China. Sixty-seven million bulbs are produced on about 430 hectares in Japan. Kagoshima Prefecture is the major producer of L. longiflorum. Asiatic Hybrids are mainly produced in Niigata and Hokkaido Prefecture. L. speciosum is produced in Toyama. One hundred and fifty-seven million cut-flowers are produced on about 550 hectares. Such as L. longiflorum, which is located mainly in Kagoshima, Koochi and Fukuoka. L. x formolongi are grown on 11 ha in Hyogo and on 40 ha in Nagano. Oriental Hybrids and Asiatic Hybrids are produced in almost all of the prefectures. In Niigata and Hokkaido, many varieties of Asiatic Hybrid have been developed by private breeders and research stations. Mr. Nishimura, in Nagano, started crossing L. formosanum with L. longiflorum around 1928 and then developed L. x formolongi which has the characteristic of flowering within a year from seeds and has broad leaves like L. longiflorum. As L. x formolongi are propagated by seeds, there is no problems of virus infection during forcing for cut flower production. Techniques overcoming the barriers between species, cut-style pollination, embryo-culture, etc., have been developed in Japan. Recently some newer hybrids have appeared by crossing L. longiflorum and L. x formolongi with the other species using embryo culture.
Okazaki, K. (1996). LILIUM SPECIES NATIVE TO JAPAN, AND BREEDING AND PRODUCTION OF LILIUM IN JAPAN. Acta Hortic. 414, 81-92