CAROB MOTH, A PEST OF PISTACHIO NUT IN IRAN
The carob moth, Apomyelois (= Ectomyelois) ceratoniae (Zell.) is a well known pest of pomegranate in Iran. In an investigation from 1989–1991, it is collected from most pistachio plantation area of Kerman and Yazd provinces. It appears that this pest of pistachio is occurring in many parts of pistachio growing area in Iran. Under natural conditions Carob moth attacks to pistachio nuts from late of July, when the hull starts to split and it's degree of infestation increase with increasing of cracking closed to harvesting period, this insect cannot attack to naturally smoth and intact hull nuts, however the larvae can penetrate unsplitted shell through stem end. It's maximum activity found to be during september and october in Rafsanjan. It appears that Carob moth spends several generations on alternate hosts, mainly pomegranate, befor pistachio nuts begin to mature and susceptible to this moth. Larvae can't feed the hull and try to entering the shell and feed from kernel in some area about 10 % of pistachio nuts found infested at harvesting time. Each larvae consume about 120 mg from kernel of fresh fruit (equal dried weight). In natural conditions This insect is able to continue its damage when the nuts stored under domestic storage conditions. During the process of post harvesting more than half of active larvae will be destroy, and the remained larvae continue their life's period in storehouse.
Mehrnejad, M.R. (1995). CAROB MOTH, A PEST OF PISTACHIO NUT IN IRAN. Acta Hortic. 419, 365-372