CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL DISTRIBUTION AND SOME BIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF SUMACH (RHUSCORIARIA) IN CENTRAL ASIA
Sumach (Rhus coraria, Lindl.) a member of the Anacardiaceae family, is a shrub used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, food coloring or preservations, veterinary practices and leather processing technologies. The plant is known to have a high content of tannins. The objectives of this investigation were, to study the extent and nature of the distribution of R. coriaria and the influence of complex environmental conditions on certain biological aspects of sumach under wild growing conditions. This study was carried out mainly in central Asia (Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan Republics of the former Soviet Union) and Caucasus from 1986 to 1991. We found that R. coriaria is naturally distributed in the eastern regions of central Asia, where an annual precipitation reaches 500 – 600 mm and is disjunctive. The extension of this species towards northern hemisphere and vertical distribution in the mountainous regions is limited by lower temperatures. The southern and eastern distribution is limited by aridity and relatively higher sociological competition from other plant species. We found that in Pamir-Alai region of Tadjikistan, exclusively monodominant phytocenosis of sumach, with relatively tree-like larger individual plants, having 6 – 8 m of height. In contrast to the eastern Caucasus, in Crimea and other western areas, sumach is a calciphil, having a co-dominant character of distribution, mostly in association with other species. There was a clear demarcation in zonal distribution of monocious and dioecious forms of sumach. We also established, that, sumach can be multiplied either by seeds or vegetative means. In Pamir-Alai region, however, only female plants were found and propagation was possible only by vegetative means. It is suggested, that, the cause for the absence of male plants in Pamir-Alai region is due to the drastic ecological changes or the impact of modern development.
Bloshenko, E.K. and Letchamo, W. (1996). CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL DISTRIBUTION AND SOME BIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF SUMACH (RHUSCORIARIA) IN CENTRAL ASIA. Acta Hortic. 426, 113-122
Sumach, distribution, dye, variability, habitat, central Asia