ANTI-SNAKE VENOM PREPARATIONS FROM AFRICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

B.K. Naomesi, J. Adotey, N.I.Y. Fiagbe
"Vemkill" is a standardized ethanolic extract, containing a recipe of three plants, which has been used successfully to abolish or reduce lethality of snake bites in Ghana. We investigated the actions of "Vemkill" against Neurotoxin I paralytic effect on the isolated rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscle preparation. The antivemom action of "Vemkill" was also investigated against Crotoxin, the venom of the medically important snake in the Americas - Crotalus durissus terrificus (tropical rattle snake) in four-day old chicks.

The electrically stimulated phrenic nerve-induced contractions of the isolated rat diaphragm muscle were completely abolished 3 hours 34 minutes after exposure to Neurotoxin I (25μg/ml). "Vemkill" (1:53 dilution, final bath concentration) completely protected the preparation against Neurotoxin action. A cut-off time of 24 hours was used for assessment of effect in chicks. An intramuscular (I/M) administration of "Vemkill" (0.1 ml)1 hour before or after the same route administration of an LD50 dose of Crotoxin (0.073 μg/ml), produced 84.0 ±8.9% protection in chicks. In control chicks that received 0.1 ml Normal Saline N/S 1 hour before or after Crotoxin, the protection was 44.0 ±4.89%. I/M administration of 0.1 ml, 1 hour preincubated mixture of "Vemkill" (0.1 ml) and Crotoxin (0.073 μg/g) at 37% provided 100% protection in chicks. The protection in control chicks receiving a preincubated mixture of Crotoxin (0.073 μg/g) and 0.1 ml N/S was 58.0 ±7.48%. An LD100 dose Crotoxin (0.142 μg/g) and "Vemkill" (0.1 ml) preincubated mixture also provided 100% protection in chicks. The protection of Crotoxin (0.142 μg/g) and 0.1 ml N/S preincubated control mixture was 0% in four-day old chicks.

Naomesi, B.K., Adotey, J. and Fiagbe, N.I.Y. (1996). ANTI-SNAKE VENOM PREPARATIONS FROM AFRICAN MEDICINAL PLANTS. Acta Hortic. 426, 227-234
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.426.27
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.426.27

Acta Horticulturae