PROGRESS TOWARDS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) ON MANGOES IN SOUTH AFRICA
For the biocontrol of mango scale, an Aphytis sp. parasitoid and a predatory beetle, Cybocephalus binotatus, were imported from Thailand and established in several areas. Up to 46.3% parasitism of the mango scale occurred, while C. binotatus dispersed to several orchards surrounding the original release sites.
Fenthion, which is used to control mango seed weevil, is extremely toxic to beneficial insects and alternative control measures were evaluated. Several methods e.g. systemic insecticides and egg parasitoids proved to be non-viable and finally a softer insecticide viz. endosulfan 475 g/kg SC, was evaluated for registration.
For fruit fly control, most producers refrain from using full cover sprays and more IPM compatible bait sprays are applied. A monitoring system was developed for the important pests and the more judicious use of insecticides now facilitates IPM on mangoes in South Africa.