QUARANTINE ISSUES IN 2000
Methyl bromide fumigation is the most common treatment applied to fresh commodities to meet quarantine security. Under the Montreal Protocol of the United Nations, methyl bromide will be phased out in 2005 in developed countries and in 2015 in developing countries. While there is currently an exemption for pre-shipment and quarantine use, this use will be highly regulated, and the cost of methyl bromide is expected to increase while the availability decreases; therefore, the need to develop alternative treatments remains. To meet this need, researchers have been investigating many potential alternatives. The use of heat has been expanded to include high temperature controlled atmosphere treatments. These heat treatments, both with and without CA, are being explored for tropical subtropical, and temperate commodities. Radio frequency treatments present a faster option for heating many commodities. Controlled atmosphere treatments at ambient and low temperatures are also being explored. Irradiation treatments have received considerable attention, with support from federal and state governments in the U.S., and new facilities are under construction in Brazil. There has been increased interest in the use of e-beam or e-beam/x-ray in place of source irradiators. Use of irradiation for quarantine treatment within U.S. markets will likely increase; however, approval from trading partners may limit its use. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fumigants are being explored for their potential use in insect quarantine. Use of non-host status and pest-free zones should be more common in the future. However, despite considerable research activity, only a few new quarantine treatments have been approved as alternatives to methyl bromide.
Mitcham, E.J. (2001). QUARANTINE ISSUES IN 2000. Acta Hortic. 553, 451-456
irradiation, heat, GRAS, fumigant, methyl bromide, CA