G.L. Miller
Soccer ball reactions and player performance are dependent on an athletic field’s surface hardness, uniformity, and smoothness. Spatial variation due to wear patterns can be a confounding factor for experimental designs on athletic fields. This research was undertaken to spatially provide objective quantitative values of athletic field hardness. A Clegg Impact Soil Tester was used to evaluate surface hardness at 80 specific locations on two US soccer fields on a regular basis over a two year period. Significant differences were noted within and between fields. Uniformity on the sand-based field was high (average difference = 30%) but hardness in areas of high traffic could be distinguished and spatially mapped using these methods. Hardness differences within the native soil based field ranged from 51 to 96% depending on month sampled. Geostatistical estimates indicated spatial relatedness can bridge the entire field. Spatial analysis and graphical evaluations indicated that extrinsic factors played a significant role in field variability. All three analysis techniques proved to be useful for classifying areas based on surface response as well as determining field consistency. To a certain extent, the methods complement each other in providing different kinds of inferences from the same dataset.
Miller, G.L. (2004). ANALYSIS OF SOCCER FIELD SURFACE HARDNESS. Acta Hortic. 661, 287-294
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.661.36
spatial analysis, uniformity, statistics, geostatistics, semivariance, kriging

Acta Horticulturae