SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF DEEP TINE CULTIVATION ON SOIL OXYGEN, PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND TURF QUALITY OF TWO SOCCER FIELDS
Deep tine cultivation allows the alleviation of soil physical problems associated with compaction or layers. Deep tine cultivation using a Terra Spike with solid tines was conducted on two different soil types: a sandy loam and a sandy root zone overlying a coarse sand drainage layer. The research was conducted under playing conditions on two soccer fields. In our study, cultivation had no significant effect on visual turf quality on either soccer fields. However, following an initial cultivation treatment with solid tines, we observed a decrease in penetration resistance up to 2.0 MPa in the sandy root zone and up to 1.8 MPa in the sandy loam respectively. Pore space > 50 µm increased significantly from 11.4% to 14.5% for the sandy root zone and from 11.0% to 15.5% for the sandy loam. After 10 weeks, penetration resistance differences between control plots and cultivation-treated plots were only found for the sandy root zone. Penetration resistance in the sandy root zone plots decreased by 0.6 MPa at depths between 100 mm and 160 mm. Ten weeks after the cultivation treatment the soil oxygen concentrations were significantly higher (1.7%) in the sandy loam plots compared to the untreated plots. Twenty five weeks after treatment, the effect was reversed and soil oxygen concentrations in the untreated plot were higher (11.8%) compared to the cultivated plots. In the sandy root zone, oxygen values were higher (8.3%) 1 week after the cultivation treatment in the treated plots compared to the untreated. Even though the benefits of deep tine cultivation appeared to be short-lived, the study demonstrated that deep tine cultivation on trafficked turf areas raises oxygen concentrations and pore space and lowers penetration resistance in turf root zones.
Morhard, J.M. and Kleisinger, S. (2004). SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF DEEP TINE CULTIVATION ON SOIL OXYGEN, PENETRATION RESISTANCE AND TURF QUALITY OF TWO SOCCER FIELDS. Acta Hortic. 661, 343-347
turfgrass, soccer field, deep tine cultivation, penetration resistance, soil oxygen, Terra Spike, Vertidrain