M.F. Duval, J.L. Noyer, P. Hamon, G.C. Buso, F.R. Ferreira, M.E. Ferreira, C. d' Eeckenbrugge
Diversity has been examined in Ananas and Pseudananas using PCR-RFLP of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Ninety-seven accessions representing all valid species of both genera were included in the study, and 13 accessions of other bromeliads were added to constitute, out-group and study phylogenetic relationships. Eight primers designed from cpDNA were used to generate fragments. Restriction by 18 endonucleases generated 255 variable fragments for the whole sample and 52 for Ananas and Pseudananas. Dissimilarities were calculated from the resulting matrix using the Sokal & Michener index and the Neighbour-Joining method was used to reconstruct the diversity tree. Phylogenetic reconstruction was attempted using Wagner Parsimony. Phenetic and cladistic analyses gave consistent results. Ananas and Pseudananas form a monophyletic group, in which chloroplast data allow the identification of three strongly supported sub-groups, two of which are geographically consistent. The majority of A. parguazensis accessions constitute a northern group restricted to the Río Negro and Orinoco basins. The tetraploid Pseudananas sagenarius joins the diploid A. fritzmueleri to constitute the southern group. The third and largest group is the most widespread, as its distribution encompasses those of the northern and southern groups, and gathers all remaining species plus some A. parguazensis and other accessions of intermediate phenotypes. A. ananassoides is dominant in this sub-group and highly variable. Its close relationship to all cultivated species supports the hypothesis of this species being the origin of the domesticated pineapple. The data indicates the existence of gene flow, common within this group and scarcer with both the first and second groups. Comparison of cpDNA data with genomic DNA point to the hybrid origin of A. bracteatus and support the autopolyploid of Pseudananas. The comparison between molecular and the collection of data points in the Guyana region as the probable center of domestication of A. comosus indicates a secondary diversity center in the western region of the Amazon.
Duval, M.F., Noyer, J.L., Hamon, P., Buso, G.C., Ferreira, F.R., Ferreira, M.E. and d' Eeckenbrugge, C. (2005). USING CHLOROPLAST DNA MARKERS TO UNDERSTAND ANANAS AND PSEUDANANAS GENETIC DIVERSITY. Acta Hortic. 666, 93-107
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.666.9
genetic diversity; South - America; cpDNA; domestication

Acta Horticulturae