PHENOLOGICAL TREE TRAITS AND FRUIT PROPERTIES OF SEVERAL HAZELNUT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT MICROCLIMATES

A. Santos, J.L. Carvalho, A. Lopes, A. Assunção, A.P. Silva, F. Santos
Phenological tree traits and physical fruit properties were recorded for several hazelnut cultivars grown at four locations in northern Portugal. The experimental sites were located about 50 km from each other, and their altitudes varied between 320 and 680 m a.s.l. The youngest trees in the trials were 15 years old, the oldest ones were 20. Local conditions were suitable for hazelnut production at all four sites, with annual tree yields ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 kg.m-2, according to the cultivar. However, cultivars that produced high yields at one site tended to have lower yields at other sites. Furthermore, biennial bearing mainly occurred with high yielding cultivars, at all four sites. The dichogamy level of each cultivar varied from site to site. What was a slightly protandrous cultivar at one site was often protogynous at another. In some cases, an 80% overlap in the periods of male and female flowerings was observed, while there was no overlap at all at two other sites. The longest lasting male flowering at one site was ephemeral at another site in consecutive years. The major concern at all sites was the lack of pollen availability in late-February and early-March. Leafing out occurred in March, with ‘Tonda de Giffoni’ being one the most precocious and ‘Longa d’Espanha’ one of the latest. Fruit and kernel sizes varied from location to location, with significant differences between samples for some years. Blank nuts constituted the most variable fruit trait, while percent kernel was the most steady. Compatible cultivars must therefore be tested locally under similar conditions in order to make the best possible choice for each region.
Santos, A., Carvalho, J.L., Lopes, A., Assunção, A., Silva, A.P. and Santos, F. (2005). PHENOLOGICAL TREE TRAITS AND FRUIT PROPERTIES OF SEVERAL HAZELNUT CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT MICROCLIMATES. Acta Hortic. 686, 79-86
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.686.8
https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.686.8
Corylus avellana, phenology, chilling, pollen shedding, flowering, dichogamy
English

Acta Horticulturae