MINERAL NUTRITION ASPECTS IN ARTICHOKE GROWING
This paper reviews NPK and minor elements nutrition for artichoke crop. Artichoke is characterized by a long crop cycle lasting from 7 to 10 months. Its dry mass (DM) production is highly influenced by the environment, being in the Mediterranean two times higher in the southermost region of Italy and Spain compared to the south of France, and by the cultivar, ranging from about 11-12 tha-1 for the traditionally propagated cultivars to more than 31 tha-1 for the seed-propagated ones. The uptake pattern of mineral elements follows that of DM accumulation and therefore it is influenced by climate, cultivar, type of soil, and crop management. Data from literature reports uptake ranging (in kgha-1) from 112 to 279 for N, from 340 to 450 for K2O, from 35 to 125 for P2O5, from 150 to 300 for Ca, from 24 to 40 for Mg. Artichoke has also the capacity to accumulate large quantity of Na in the older leaves of plant, while for NPK the leaf concentration decreases markedly with the age of the plant. Fertilization plays a basic role on artichoke productivity, however, literature data concerning the effect of NPK fertilization on yield and quality of artichoke shows variability depending on soil fertility, cultivar, cultural practices and climatic conditions. The application of around 200 kgha-1 N is normally suggested for improving yield, while N fertilization has been reported to be inversely correlated with caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids content in plant tissue. Phosphorus and K fertilization have been related to the improvement of earliness, but a balanced NPK fertilization has often been indicated as main factor influencing yield and earliness. Lack in soil P availability or a high K/P ratio has been related to the occurrence of black tip disorder. High soil salinity or high temperatures conditions are responsible for symptoms (brown discoloration of inner bracts and head atrophy) that could be related to impaired Ca transport in the low-transpiring inflorescences.
Elia, A. and Conversa, G. (2007). MINERAL NUTRITION ASPECTS IN ARTICHOKE GROWING. Acta Hortic. 730, 239-249
dry mass accumulation, fertilization, mineral element content, element deficiency