EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST SMALL-SCALE GRAPE-DAMAGING INSECTS IN SOIL - EXPERIENCES WITH GRAPE PHYLLOXERA
Metarhizium anisopliae is an imperfect, entomopathogenic fungus found in soils throughout the world. It was first recognized as a biocontrol agent (BCA) in the 1880s. Various insect pests are currently being targeted for control by M. anisopliae. To evaluate the field efficacy, the pre-application pest density and the density after application are assessed, whereas dead and alive individuals are counted. This method is not applicable for small-scale insects as dead individuals are rapidly mineralised and therefore not detectable. This leads to the unsatisfying situation with reliance on indirect evidence to determine the efficacy of the BCA. In the case of grape phylloxera, more difficulties arise in testing the efficacy of Metarhizium under field conditions because of the uneven distribution of roots and pest insects in soil.
Huber, L. and Kirchmair, M. (2007). EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST SMALL-SCALE GRAPE-DAMAGING INSECTS IN SOIL - EXPERIENCES WITH GRAPE PHYLLOXERA. Acta Hortic. 733, 167-171
biocontrol, entomopathogen, Hyphomycetes, Metarhizium anisopliae, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae