GENETIC POTENTIAL OF SPECIES PRUNUS CERASIFERA EHRH AND ITS USE IN BREEDING
Hybridisation between varieties of myrobalan plum allowed to obtain the valuable early-ripening hybrids with suitable canned industry. Crossing of varieties P. cerasifera with the varieties P. salicina and others diploid plum varieties made it possible to have large-fruited varieties with good taste of fruit, early ripening, high winter-hardiness and disease resistance.
The valuable results were obtain when the varieties of myrobalan plum Purpurovaja, Chernilnaja, Ashtarakskaja N 2, Pionerka, Riony, Kok-Sultan and some others were taken as the parental form.
Myrobalan plum, Prunus cerasifera is widly spread in the South of the USSR - in Caucasus, Central Asia, and Crimea. Equally with the wild-growing forms there are many local varieties. In a number of scientific-research institutions of the Soviet Union, such as Nikitsky Botanical Garden, at Krymsk, Maikop and Central Asia stations of Vavilov All-Union Research Institute of Plant Growing, North Caucasus and Armenian Institute of Horticulture and Grape Growing the work upon the investigation of local varieties and also upon breeding of new varieties is carried out. Selected from the collection or breeded new varieties allowed the myrobalan plum to get the industrial culture. In the USSR the area under myrobalan plum is near 1000 ha and it is increasing quickly.
Investigation of myrobalan plum in different parts of its areal conducted by V.P. Ekimov, N.V. Kovalev, K.F. Kostina, S.S. Kalmykov, V.E. Tkachenko, E.E. Georgberidze, A. M. Vermishjan and some other breeders, reveal the great polymorphism inside of species P. cerasifera, which allow to distinguish a number of subspecies and varieties. Some botanists singled out even a series of independent "species" of myrobalan plum, but our thorough investigation of all variety of forms P. cerasifera,