DECONSTRUCTION AND RECREATION OF 'HAYWARD' VOLATILE FLAVOUR USING A TRAINED SENSORY PANEL, OLFACTOMETRY AND A KIWIFRUIT MODEL MATRIX
To deliver consistent high-quality 'Hayward' kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) to consumers, the sensory and chemical characteristics at typical eating-ripeness need to be defined. Furthermore, the relationship between chemical characteristics and sensory attributes must be understood to develop rapid chemical indices of sensory quality. 'Hayward' kiwifruit of "low" <14% and "high" 1718%, dry matter (DM) at an eating ripeness of 1.0 kgF penetrometer measurement were subjected to sensory and chemical analysis. A trained sensory panel assessed odour, aroma and taste attributes. Kiwifruit volatiles were collected using dynamic headspace purge and trap and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry olfactometry (GC/MS-O). GC effluents were assessed by a trained sniffing panel (n=7) with time intensity profiling of odour. High DM kiwifruit received higher scores for sweetness and sweet aftertaste. While more than 30 volatiles were found to be odour-active by GC/MS-O; the most important were: trans-2-hexenal (marzipan, sweet), 1-penten-3-one (plastic, herbal glue, kiwifruit-like) and hexanal (green, fresh crushed leaves). No discernible differences in the principal aromagram profiles between the two dry matter levels were identified. These findings were used to guide 'Hayward' flavour recreation and validation experiments using an artificial kiwifruit matrix. Odour-active volatile compounds were added stepwise to the matrix at average natural kiwifruit concentrations, in descending order according to the odour intensity ranking obtained in olfactometry experiments. Test mixtures were compared to fresh kiwifruit macerate references by the trained-panel. No significant improvement was achieved by adding more than three odour-impact compounds.
Frank, D., O'Riordan, P., Varelis, P., Zabaras, D., Watkins, P., Ceccato, C. and Wijesundera, C. (2007). DECONSTRUCTION AND RECREATION OF 'HAYWARD' VOLATILE FLAVOUR USING A TRAINED SENSORY PANEL, OLFACTOMETRY AND A KIWIFRUIT MODEL MATRIX. Acta Hortic. 753, 107-119
Actinidia, volatiles, sensory evaluation, compounding