RASPBERRY AND CURRANT ENTOMOLOGY - THE DRIVERS FOR CHANGE IN EUROPE
Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and redcurrant (R. rubrum) are the most important cane and bush fruits grown commercially in Europe, although there is now a considerable increase in the area of blueberry being planted. The main cane and bush fruits are attacked by a wide range of insect and mite pests that can reduce quality, yield or have phytosanitary implications in propagation and plant exports. In recent years there have been significant changes in the methods of growing raspberry in some parts of Europe with the adoption of protected or semi-protected production systems to ensure high quality fruit for the fresh fruit market and, in some locations, to extend harvesting interval. Out-of-season fresh production has expanded rapidly in the Iberian Peninsula. Much of the fruit destined for processing is now concentrated in central, east and south-eastern Europe and relies on traditional open-field production systems. Most blackcurrants are still produced in the open-field, much of it for processing, mainly for juice production; whereas redcurrants are harvested for both fresh, with some use of protected cropping, and processing. Historically, chemical control of pests of small fruits in Europe has relied on older insecticidal and acaricidal (miticidal) products, but with the recent review of pesticides used in Europe, many of these have been, or will soon be, withdrawn from use. Changes in pesticide availability and the increasing desire from supermarkets for fresh produce are also driving change in production methods, with a developing emphasis on produce with perceived health benefits produced with minimal or no detectable pesticide residues. Largely due to the small size of the cane and bush fruit industries in Europe, the development of robust Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems has been considerably slower than in the much larger top fruit sector. Many of the insects and mites that colonise small fruits are specific to them, offering little opportunity for direct transfer of the technology, so specific alternative control strategies must be developed. The increase in semi-protected raspberry production has opened up the possibility of alternative strategies to manage pests using biological and other control strategies. Plant breeders have a role in developing commercially successful cultivars that meet the demands of the consumer in terms of fruit quality, but they also have to concentrate on enhancing natural plant resistance to some of important pests and diseases. Some of the current research will be discussed and the possible outcomes considered.
Gordon, S.C. (2008). RASPBERRY AND CURRANT ENTOMOLOGY - THE DRIVERS FOR CHANGE IN EUROPE. Acta Hortic. 777, 301-310
Rubus, Ribes, integrated pest management, pesticide usage, semiochemicals