MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF SPORT FIELDS: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
Sports field managers must manage insect pests in ways that are non-hazardous to players, bystanders, and the environment. This paper reviews advances in insect management for sport fields in the USA and predicts future trends. Novel chemical insecticides are being developed that are target selective, safer, and used at lower rates than were products in the past. Biological insecticides are not widely used but could gain market share if production technology improves and costs decrease. Biotechnology offers new venues for developing insect-resistant grasses. Natural enemies of a few invasive pests have been established in some regions, but options for site-specific biological control are mainly limited to conserving endemic enemies. Cultural manipulations can suppress some pests but the options are constrained by what field use requirements will allow. Exotic scarab grubs, crane flies, mole crickets, fire ants, and other invasive pests are expanding their geographic ranges in the USA. Accelerating research on US turfgrass insects is providing a stronger data base for sustainable pest management.
Potter, D.A. (2008). MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF SPORT FIELDS: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?. Acta Hortic. 783, 481-498
turfgrass insects, reduced-risk insecticides, biological control, cultural control, integrated pest management