S.K. Mitra, P.K. Pathak
Litchi makes significant contribution to the lives and economic health of millions of people in the South-east Asia. Production in the Asia-Pacific region accounts for more than 95% of world cultivation. In the Asia-Pacific region the leading producers are China, India, Thailand, Australia and Vietnam. Production goes back at least 2200 years in southern China, but is relatively new in the rest of Asia and the Pacific. The main cultivars in China include ‘Baila’, ‘Baitanying’, ‘Heiye’, ‘Feizixiao’, ‘Guiwei’, ‘Nuomici’ and ‘Huaizhi’. Of the 30 or so cultivars grown, only five (‘Bombai’, ‘Shahi’, ‘China’, ‘Rose Scented’, and ‘Bedana’) are commercially important in India. Thailand has both tropical and subtropical litchis, ‘Hong Huay’ (‘Dazao’, ‘Tai So’) accounts for 65% of production while ‘Kom’ accounts for 11% of planting and is the main tropical cultivar in Thailand. ‘Tai So’, ‘Kwai May Pink’ and ‘Wai Chee’ dominate plantings of Australia. Local seedlings selections of Chinese cultivars are used in Vietnam, Nepal, Bangladesh and Southern Thailand. Marcotting is the most common form of propagation in Thailand, India, Bangladesh and Vietnam while both marcotting and budding are popular in India. Traditionally, orchards were planted at low densities of 80 to 150 trees/ha, and the trees thinned out when they began to crowd each other. Many countries are now adopting high-density plantings with 300 to 1500 trees/ha. Leaf nutrient standards have been developed in Australia, China and India and response to some nutrients have been reported. Most orchards in the region are dependent on regular rainfall, with irrigation either too expensive or not available. Regardless of where litchi is grown, several insect groups attack the flowers, fruit, leaves and branches. Lepidopterous fruit borers are generally the most important pests affecting production. The fruit is highly prized, especially in Asia, and is a valuable international commodity. The fruit is extremely perishable and thus limits marketing in many countries without storage facilities.
Mitra, S.K. and Pathak, P.K. (2010). LITCHI PRODUCTION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION. Acta Hortic. 863, 29-36
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.863.1
litchi, production, Asia

Acta Horticulturae