IN VITRO CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR CONSERVATION OF DATE PALM GERMPLASMIN IN ARAB COUNTRIES
Great numbers of date palm trees have been lost in Arab countries due to diseases (Morocco), destruction of habitats (Egypt) and wars (Iraq). Expansion of date palm plantations and replanting trees to compensate loss caused by diseases or man-made factors are restricted due to lack of adequate propagation and conservation methods. The sexual propagation method cannot be used commercially for propagation of the cultivars of interest in a true-to-type manner. In the vegetative conventional propagation, few numbers of offshoots are produced from the mothers in their juvenile life cycle. Moreover, conservation of date palm germplasms is difficult-to-store in the form of offshoots or in field collections. Tissue culture and molecular biology techniques have great potential for the collecting, multiplication and storage of date palm germplasm. In vitro storage methods have been developed for preservation of date palm germplasm which can be used extensively for the international exchange of germplasm because of their obvious advantages over in vivo material, notably their reduced weight and volume, and phytosanitary conditions. Moreover, plant material can thus be multiplied, stored and exchanged in a disease-free state. The results of our studies indicate that short and mid-term periods of storage of date palm tissue cultures were recognized by controlling of environmental growth conditions and nutrient media composition. Long-term storage has been achieved by in vitro cryopreservation. Moreover, encapsulation of somatic embryos in alginate beads has been recognized recently as a possible way of germplasm exchange in date palm varieties. Otherwise, molecular biology techniques and their uses in the conservation, evaluation and utilization of genetic resources have been used for characterization and detection of genetic stability of the conserved date palm tissue cultures. This article presents the methods and aspects of plant biotechnology used for management and conservation of date palm germplasms.
Bekheet, S.A. (2010). IN VITRO CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR CONSERVATION OF DATE PALM GERMPLASMIN IN ARAB COUNTRIES. Acta Hortic. 882, 211-217
date palm, in vitro, germplasm preservation