APPLYING SUBMERGED TECHNIQUE TO PRODUCE CITRIC ACID FROM DATES
Surface fermentation and submerged fermentation by A. niger (ATCC 9642) have been carried out to produce citric acid from dates. The submerged technique shows superiority in terms of time reduction as well as yield. The pH drop due to the production of citric acid took ten days in most of the surface fermentation treatments; whereas highest yield of citric acid produced by the submerged fermentation has been obtained after two days. In addition, oxalic did not appear in HPLC assay. To track the formation of citric acid during the fermentation an HPLC and RI detector have been applied successfully through the developed method.
Al-Abid, M., Al-Amri, M. and Al-Rawahi, F. (2010). APPLYING SUBMERGED TECHNIQUE TO PRODUCE CITRIC ACID FROM DATES. Acta Hortic. 882, 609-615